We will consider birds as a group distinct from reptiles for the purpose of this discussion with the understanding that this doesn’t utterly replicate phylogenetic historical past and relationships. This characteristic has solely reversed in a couple of teams of Osteichthyes, similar to sturgeons and paddlefish, which have primarily cartilaginous skeletons. The pores and skin of bony fishes is usually covered by overlapping scales, and glands within the skin secrete mucus that reduces drag when swimming and aids the fish in osmoregulation. Vertebrates show the four attribute options of the chordates; nonetheless, members of this group also share derived traits that distinguish them from invertebrate chordates. Vertebrata is named for the vertebral column, composed of vertebrae, a collection of separate bones joined together as a backbone.
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