Food Science Education

Substantive knowledge Disciplinary knowledge Conceptual… know that… because… Liquids expand when they are heated . All measuring instruments, such as a thermometer, have a built-in degree of uncertainty. Procedural… know how to… and be able to… Draw a particle diagram for a liquid. Scientific enquiry integrates substantive and disciplinary knowledge, as explained in the table above, into an overall strategy to answer questions about the material world. In England, science is assessed at key stage 4 as either combined science worth 2 GCSE grades, or as 3 separate science GCSEs, commonly referred to as triple science. At key stage 5, pupils can choose to study A levels in the 3 sciences, as well as environmental science.

In this way, pupils learn how knowledge connects in science as they ‘see’ its underlying conceptual structure. Importantly, this sequencing pays careful attention to how to pair substantive with disciplinary knowledge, so that disciplinary knowledge is always learned within the most appropriate substantive contexts. Having insufficient time to teach the curriculum is another cause of teachers’ stress. A recent analysis of timetable models in England revealed that, in some secondary schools, science receives a low share of teaching time compared with optional GCSEs. This is supported by recent international comparison data that shows pupils in Year 9 received considerably less curriculum time for science in England’s schools than the international average.

An introduction to using response activities to challenge misunderstandings, encourage metacognition and facilitate progress in understanding. The platform allows researchers to cross-search and seamlessly access a wide breadth of must-have SAGE book and reference content from one source. Due to the current restrictions in place, our inspection copy policy has changed. Past papers, schemes of work and teacher guides are all available from our School Support Hub and there is a range of endorsed text books to choose from too. ChemistryCo-ordinated ScienceCombined ScienceThese syllabuses offer the strongest progression to A Level and further learning in Science.

Research exploring the differences between expert and novice scientists is useful to inform our understanding of what successful learning in science looks like. Experts differ from novices not only in the extent of their domain-specific knowledge, but also in how this knowledge is organised in their memory. Experts know more science than novices and this knowledge is better structured.

Younger pupils who cannot yet read will learn vocabulary when teachers discuss it and present it to them. This might be through listening to storybooks and non-fiction texts, as well as rhymes and poems. This is made even more effective when key vocabulary and meanings are introduced through explicit teaching approaches alongside shared book reading. For example, teachers may focus on specific words before, during and after reading a storybook. Picture books can also help young pupils learn accurate scientific information. A study involving 4- and 5-year-olds showed that picture books were effective in teaching them about falling objects.

In our overview of research underpinning the education inspection framework , we identified teaching as the single most important factor in schools’ effectiveness. Teacher effectiveness is particularly important in science given the abstract and counterintuitive nature of many of the ideas being learned. Research highlights the importance of teacher explanations in science that build from what pupils already know.

Pupils learn how scientific models, laws and theories develop over time, including the importance of technology and the role of the scientific community in peer review. The 2019 school workforce census shows that 26.6% of teaching hours in physics were taught by teachers with no relevant post-A-level qualifications. At primary, estimates suggest that just 5% of teachers hold specialised science degrees and teaching qualifications. Since there are a variety of ways that schools can construct and teach a high-quality science curriculum, it is important to recognise that there is no singular way of achieving high-quality science education. Our science syllabuses build subject knowledge, conceptual understanding, and the higher order thinking skills students need, whatever route they take. We work with schools and teachers worldwide to develop syllabuses that suit different countries, types of schools and learners with a wide range of abilities.

In biology, relationships between the different levels of organisation, such as organs and organisms, need to be made explicit too. The curriculum is sequenced so that pupils have the necessary disciplinary and substantive knowledge to carry out practical work successfully and learn from it. Neither should these encounters be restricted to just making science relevant.

Research commissioned by the Education Endowment Foundation shows that disadvantaged pupils make poorer progress in science at every stage of their education, although this gap is not unique to science. These pupils are also less likely to take a science subject at A level and beyond. Evidence from analysis of school timetables in England suggests that insufficient time is often allocated to teach triple science. This means that some schools restrict triple science to just high-attaining pupils who are presumed to be able to cope with the more intensive timetable.