Definition of Plant Breeding

Plant reproduction is a process that aims to increase the number of plant species or certain cultivars, in general, there are two types of plant reproduction, namely:
• Sexual reproduction
• Asexual reproduction
And in nature, almost all plants reproduce sexually by producing viable seeds.
Sexual reproduction
Sexual reproduction involves bringing together “male” pollen and “female” egg cells to produce seeds. A seed is composed of three parts, namely the seed coat as the seed protector, the endosperm as a food reserve, and the embryo which is a plant candidate. When the seeds have matured and are in a suitable environment, they will begin to germinate, which in general there are two types of sexual propagation, namely isogamy, and heterogamy.
Advantages and disadvantages
As for sexual breeding, there are advantages and disadvantages which include:
• Advantages
Plants grown through seeds in living conditions have a deep root system so that they have good vigor, allow for improved characteristics compared to the parent polyembryony, propagation by seed is needed when vegetative propagation fails or requires a lot of money.
• Losses
If the resulting offspring do not inherit the superior traits of the parents, then the yield is inferior so that it is not profitable, the seeds lose viability in a short period of sowing causing the plant to experience a long juvenile phase.
Asexual Breeding
Asexual reproduction is a method of reproduction in plants without going through meiosis, reduction of ploidy, or crossing to produce offspring who are clones of the parent.
The properties of the tillers are the same as the parent because there is no fusion of traits, some plants reproduce asexually which gives them a greater chance of maintaining the population.
Advantages and disadvantages of asexual development
The advantages and disadvantages of asexual development include:
• Its success can be seen immediately.
• Heterozygote parents can be conserved without changing traits.
• And it is easier and faster than seed breeding because dormancy problems can be eliminated and the juvenile status is shortened.
The main disadvantage of asexual propagation is the loss of diversity, scientists agree that diversity is an important factor in resistance and disease.
Generative Breeding
Plants that reproduce sexually have reproductive organs in the form of flowers, in which there are male genitalia called anther which produces pollen as male sex cells, and the pistil as female genital organs that produce eggs. In this type of plant, a group of plants can be distinguished, which means that the maximum growth occurs when flowers are formed so that flowers are found at the ends of the plants and indeterminate types of plants; meaning that growth continues even though it has entered the generative phase.
Vegetative Propagation
The method of vegetative propagation by utilizing vegetative parts to get new plants in plant breeding is very useful for creating superior clones that are uniform. Clones are groups of individuals or populations composed of individuals with the same genetic or genotypic structure because they come from the vegetative part without the combination of new genes as is the case in plants that reproduce sexually. For example, in cassava, sweet potato, potato, gladiolus, banana, sugarcane, rubber, tea, and so on. Clones can be produced from stem cuttings, leaf cuttings, root cuttings. Plants or clone parent trees can come from old clones that already exist or from the result of genetic combinations through crosses which are then propagated asexually. Vegetative propagation can also be done through grafting (water layering), ducking (layering), grafting, grafting, and so on