Copernican Heliocentric System Of The Universe, 17th Century Posters & Prints By Johannes Hevelius

With modern techniques, the Sun, at the centre of our Solar System, can be observed by detecting emissions in various regions of the electromagnetic spectrum eg infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays and even gamma ray emissions. Ancient astronomers didn’t have telescopes to make accurate observations to test out any other model. Sunspots are areas of the Sun’s surface that appear darker because they are cooler. Some of Galileo’s contemporaries believed the sunspots could be small satellites between Mercury and the Sun but Galileo showed that the spots changed shape and size and sometimes disappeared, therefore couldn’t be satellites. Aristotle believed all of the heavenly bodies were perfect spheres, with perfectly smooth surfaces and without blemishes.

The word “world” comes from the energy vortex created by the electromagnetic battery of our Flat Earth connected through the North Pole and Antarctic Circles positive and negative charges. The salt in the ocean providing the electrolyte catalyst to charge Earth’s plasma battery field. We all are contained in a plasma toroidal field of perpetual regeneration inside a closed system energy vortex which causes a “whirling” action, hence the word whirled or world. We call it a sunrise and sunset, yet, according to the most basic of heliocentric theory, this is a grossly incorrect term, that has never been corrected for over 100 years from academia to the science community. One possible reason was when heliocentrism was introduced to the public education systems of Western world, most worked and lived outdoors.

Galileo’s observations of Jupiter, using the telescope, provided evidence for the heliocentric model of the Solar System – initially it provided evidence that not everything revolved around the Earth. But if the Moon’s surface wasn’t smooth, this contradicted Aristotle’s notion that all heavenly bodies were perfect spheres. It meant that objects in the sky were just as varied and ‘imperfect’ as the Earth. The idea that the Sun and other cosmic bodies orbited around the Earth was called the geocentric model.

This made them different to the Earth, which he believed was imperfect as it had mountains, valleys and ridges. Galileo presenting his telescope to the Muses, and pointing out a heliocentric system. Note Jupiter and its satellites, the phases of Venus, and the… Centuries, Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo and Newton, were all deeply religious Christians who in many ways saw their scientific work as a religious undertaking. In this article we look at theories of the structure of the universe and how religion reacted to major advances in the mathematical sciences on this issue.

He attributed ‘natural’ properties to substances and these dictated their motion. For example a stone is by nature part of the Earth so its nature makes it fall to Earth. Aristotle gave a system of logical deduction which was seen as the ultimate form for reasoning for many centuries. For variable stars of short period there is a non-neglible time-scale variability of period 1 year due to the Earth’s orbit about the Sun. Although the radius of the Earth’s orbit is only 8.3 light-minutes, this nevertheless advances or retards the timing of observations by up to that amount. The effect ranges from a maximum for stars on the ecliptic to zero for any star at either ecliptic pole.

Since it is above the atmosphere, many of the problems of image quality described above are greatly reduced. The ‘twinkling’ of stars, giving an unstable image, is caused by incoming light refracting several times in the Earth’s atmosphere. Light pollution comes from any light source on the Earth’s surface that emits light into the sky at night eg from road traffic, office blocks, street lights etc., all of which makes it more difficult to observe dim-faint objects in the sky. So, anything that changing that reflects or emits visible light can be detected and by using long-time exposures you can detect very faint very distant objects. Photographing the same patch of sky and comparing images from one night to another can show up whether an object is moving eg asteroid or comet or some new star appearing or an old star exploding in a massive supernovae explosion,.