Regarding the overarching topics in invertebrate science communication (Q1.11 vs. Q2.16; Figure 1), we compared the frequency which the scientists address each topic with the general interest the public reported. There is much more public interest in Conservation, Evolution, Economy and even Pathology, than the scientists acknowledge. On the contrary, there is less public interest in Biodiversity than what is perceived by scientists, thought that might be due to a mismatch of the scientific definition of that term and public knowledge.
They found similar widespread changes in both, with an on-going decline in invertebrates surprising scientists, as they had previously been viewed as nature’s survivors. Specialises in Diptera – especially lower Brachycera and Empidoidea – and other terrestrial insects of riverine and upland habitats. There are now nearly four million specimens of marine invertebrates in the collection, which form an invaluable resource for the research of British marine fauna, especially the North Atlantic deep sea. In addition there are discrete collections of other terrestrial forms (e.g. spiders and millipedes) and freshwater invertebrates (e.g. snails). The collections are separated into wet preserved specimens, dried specimens and models, and microscope slides.
Some species, such as those of pioneer habitats, are adapted for dispersal and will colonise new patches at some distance from their natal sites, but will require frequent management to create new patches. Others exhibit metapopulation dynamics and require patches of suitable habitat to be distributed at landscape scale. Forest Research’s services might be used to enhance and better understand biodiversity assessments – such as an ecotoxicology investigation of a brownfield site, or an evaluation of local soil characteristics. Forest Research could offer advice on the most appropriate planting and management programmes for the site to encourage the most valuable vertebrate, invertebrate and plant species for the area.
Those who answered “yes” or “maybe” were then asked to name three invertebrate animals (Q2.10). In total, 93 respondents (∼47%) shared some meaningful experiences of science communication they had in our final open-ended question (Q2.21). Regarding education level (Q2.6), the majority of the respondents held a university degree (∼65%; Supplementary Table S9); included in this number are those respondents who have a post-graduate degree (∼17% of total).
Remarkably, there is a large public interest in topics related to History/Archaeology and to folklore/myths, which are rarely touched upon by scientists. Understandably, the latter topics are outside the experience or interest of most scientists and will rarely be addressed; nevertheless, if scientists were willing to make more use of these topics, they could get a good response from their public. It is widely recognized that the public is not homogenous (Dietz et al., 2002; Berentson-Shaw, 2018), but there are means to minimize or circumvent this problem. In the first place, we must recognize that we cannot reach all members of the public with our science topics (Berentson-Shaw, 2018). Therefore, we focused our questionnaire on those people who already have some interest in nature and biology and are therefore most likely to be interested in the topic (i.e., visitors to Te Papa or the two reserves, as well as Te Papa’s social media followers). Furthermore, by focusing on this subset, the issue of having a small sample size was attenuated.
The Garden provides an important habitat for many types of bees including Honey, Social and, perhaps the most obviously seen, Bumblebees. These harmless, usually ground-nesting bees often use our undisturbed boundaries for their nests. These include common species such as White, Buff and Red-tailed Bumblebees, which are readily seen. Butterflies are amongst the most obvious invertebrates in the Garden. The pale yellow of the Brimstone butterfly is usually the first to be seen out fluttering on sunny March days, and are often joined by overwintering Comma, Peacock and Red Admiral butterflies. Later in spring, Orange-tips and Speckled Woods frequent sunny glades, and are perhaps the most commonest species.
We asked the respondents to nominate groups of organisms that, in their experience, tend to fascinate the public (Q1.12, Supplementary Table S4). As expected, the lepidopterans ranked highest (∼12.5%), which are arguably the most aesthetically pleasing of invertebrates. Cephalopods (octopuses, squids, etc.) also ranked at 12.5%, which was surprising at first sight. However, cephalopods have starred in several popular science books in recent years, as well as receiving increased media attention due to their intelligence, communication and camouflage abilities, which arguably makes them charismatic and of public interest. The next group, crustaceans (crabs, lobsters, etc.), only amounted to half the value of the former groups (6.5%). These were followed by cnidarians , hymenopterans , and, rather unexpectedly , trilobites (∼6% each).
These frustrations with journalists are long-standing and well documented , and have been exacerbated by the decline of print news media as a whole. Declines in staff, time and resources inevitably affect the quality of science reporting, https://www.laalmeja.com/ and dedicated science journalists have become a rarity in even the largest media outlets . Secondly, it was pointed out that most outreach programs are undertaken irregularly and address a broad audience that includes people of all ages.
Andrei is sensitive enough to represent the populations of this autochthonous species. However, this should not be generalized, considering other non-standard species or even other contaminants. P. corethrurus was more sensitive to the fungicide carbendazim, but less sensitive to the insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin, when compared with the standard test species E. Fetida in lethality tests under tropical conditions.25Metaphire posthuma is an Indian species widely distributed in various states of India and other Asian countries that is well adapted to burrowing. This species was more sensitive to the pesticides carbaryl, carbofuran, cypermethrin and fenvalerate than E.
Many of the selected alternative species are still unknown for most of the researchers working with the soil matrix and, therefore, their use is unusual. For more information on mitigation plans and compensation measures, read the planners guide for protected species and development. If there is no reasonable alternative habitat close by, the proposal could include https://www.wikipedia.org/ capturing invertebrates and moving them to a different location, known as translocation. The proposal should include evidence that moving invertebrates would benefit their conservation. The study, published in Scienceand led by UCL, Stanford and UCSB, focused on the demise of invertebrates in particular, as large vertebrates have been extensively studied.